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Ethereum Smart Contract Best Practices

If you're looking for a resource which catalogs and discusses common security pitfalls in the Ethereum ecosystem you should definitely read through the ConsenSys Smart Contract Best Practices documentation.

Working through it you'll learn about Software Engineering best practices, useful developer tools for security as well as known attacks (such as the DAO Hack) and what code weaknesses made them possible.

Sigma Prime - Solidity Security

This long-form blog post written by Sigma Prime walks the reader through all of the known attack vectors an EVM-based Smart Contract can expose.

Every vulnerability is described and discussed in a structured, 3-part writeup. At first the vulnerability is explained in great detail, next up preventative techniques are shown, followed by examples where the discussed security hole has been exploited in the past.

Note: The blog post was turned into a GitHub repository which welcomes contributions to keep the document as up-to-date as possible.

Mastering Ethereum - Smart Contract Security

The book "Mastering Ethereum" has a dedicated chapter about Smart Contract security. It's a very thorough examination of all the different security breaches that happened in the Ethereum ecosystem during the time of writing.

The structure the authors adhere to is very useful as they'll start by explaining the exploits core concepts, showing vulnerable code examples to then follow-up with preventative techniques and closing with examples from the real world.

If you're reading the GitHub version linked above you'll also benefit from updates contributed by the community.

Security Pitfalls & Best Practices 101 & 102

The Security Pitfalls & Best Practices 101 and Security Pitfalls & Best Practices 201 posts by Secureum discuss various Smart Contract attack vectors, security measures as well as best practices to help you build resilient EVM-based dApps.

Reading through it you'll learn about vulnerabilities such as reentrancy, common pitfalls in ERC standards as well as economic measures to mitigate exploitations from bad actors.

Audit Techniques & Tools 101

The Audit Techniques & Tools 101 post by Secureum describes how Smart Contracts and dApps are audited and which tools and techniques are used in the process.

Reading through it you'll learn what you should do to prepare for an audit, how an audit is conducted, what results to expect form audits and more.

Smart Contract Attack Vectors

The Smart Contract Attack Vectors repository is a collection of security vulnerabilities and mitigation strategies for EVM-based Smart Contract projects.

Browsing through the various writeups one can learn about attacks and vulnerabilities such as reentrancy, honeypots, signature malleability, incorrect inheritance order and more.

Weird ERC-20 Tokens

Weird ERC-20 Tokens is an effort to collect and categorize implementations of ERC-20 tokens with behavior that is surprising or otherwise unexpected.

Given that the ERC-20 specification is so loosely defined there are plenty of token variations out there. One can use this repository to test code against such ERC-20 implementations that don't fully follow the official specification or have potential attack surfaces like reentrant calls, code injection via token name and more.

Building Secure Smart Contracts

The Building Secure Smart Contracts project by Trail of Bits is a hands-on resource with guidelines and training material to learn how to write secure Smart Contracts.

It covers topics such as the setup of a secure development workflow, integration of tokens as well as program analysis via fuzzers, symbolic execution and static analysis.


The mission of Rekt is to catalog and analyze major Smart Contract hacks with the goal to educate readers about the exploited security vulnerabilities. Using this knowledge, builders as well as traders should be more equipped to evaluate new projects in the future.

While you're there you should also look into their Leaderboard which lists all analyzed hacks sorted by USD lost.

RugDoc Wiki

The RugDoc Wiki which describes itself as "The DeFi Wikipedia" is an all-encompassing collection of DeFi- and DeFi Security related resources. Browsing through it you'll find various guides, definitions, network-related articles and more.

Protip: Use the navigation at the top to filter articles by topic and network.


Immunefi is a bug bounty program which helps you harden your Smart Contracts and dApps. The way it works is that projects create bounties which are paid out once security researches and hackers successfully exploited the project in question.

Immunefi's bug bounty program is a good alternative and complement to the traditional Smart Contract security audit.


Solidified is a community with over 250+ Blockchain security experts and Smart Contract auditors. You can tap into this expertise via service offerings such as technical due diligence, bug bounty programs or Smart Contract audits.

Blockchain Graveyard

The Blockchain Graveyard project consolidates and categorizes various Blockchain and Cryptocurrency exploits found in the wild.

Every report consists of a short description of the root cause as well as optional links to block explorers and accompanying resources.

Protip: The homepage features a graphic with root cause estimates which shows what kind of vulnerabilities were used most during exploitations.

DeFi Threat Matrix

The goal of the DeFi Threat Matrix project is to consolidate all known attack vectors for DeFi focused dApps in one place.

Browsing through the GitHub repository you'll learn about potential vulnerabilities in Protocols, Blockchains as well as Token Economics / Mechanism Design. The repository also includes resources and pointers to in-depth guides which will help you understand and mitigate such attacks.


The ETHSecurity project is an effort to facilitate an open and collaborative community where bast practices on authoring secure Smart Contracts are shared.

Browsing through its content you'll find a lot of useful resources such as blog posts, talks, audits and security information as well as tools and developer resources.


SecurEth is a community-driven resource to educate the public as well as developers about the importance of Smart Contract security. While their main focus is on EVM-based systems, their resources are also applicable to other Blockchains.

Protip: The official SecurEth Guidelines are a great place to lean more about audits, project planning, toolings and security vulnerabilities.

Blockchain Security Database

The Blockchain Security Database by ConsenSys Diligence is an Open Source database which catalogs security information for popular dApp projects and their underlying Smart Contracts.

Browsing through it you'll find a project's audits as well as bug bounty payouts one receives when finding new security vulnerabilities.

Smart Contract Security Verification Standard

The Smart Contract Security Verification Standard is a 14-part checklist which was created to standardize the security of Smart Contracts. It can be used by developers, software architects, vendors as well as auditors.

Browsing through the repository you'll find descriptions and mitigation strategies for well-known security problems and vulnerabilities found in real world projects.


Solcurity is an opinionated security and code quality standard for Smart Contracts written in Solidity. It lists various security vulnerabilities and questions one should consider when reviewing and auditing projects.

Protip: Use the Solcurity identifiers in your code comments to link the code to the respective Solcurity topic.

Security Checklists for Ethereum Smart Contract Development

The white paper written by researchers from the Mathematics and Computer Science department of the University of Cagliari does a deep dive into various security considerations one has to take into account when working on Ethereum Smart Contracts and dApps.

The table at the end of the paper which lists abstract security patterns can be used as a checklist to perform a project's initial security audit.

Parity's Checklist for Secure Smart Contract Development

Parity published a checklist of 14 different best practices you might want to follow when working on your Smart Contract projects.

While the checklist doesn't examine known attacks like Re-Entrancy, it's a guide one should reference to streamline the Software Engineering efforts involved when building dApps on the Ethereum Blockchain.

The Ethernaut

The Ethernaut is an interactive wargame in which you switch roles and step into the shoes of an attacker to exploit Ethereum Smart Contracts.

In order to play The Ethernaut you should be proficient in Solidity and Web3.js. It's levels are sorted in ascending order (Easy - Hard), so you want to start with Level 0 and work your way up from there.

Capture the Ether

The Capture the Ether project is an interactive game in which you hack Smart Contracts to learn about security.

The different categories you work through will educate you about important topics such as integer overflows and underflows or ownership rules. Every challenge has points attached to it. The more points you get, the harder the challenge.

Damn Vulnerable DeFi

During the "DeFi Summer of 2020" there was a period of time where new Smart Contract exploits were reported on an almost daily basis.

If you want to learn how the infamous DeFi hacks worked and how you can take out a Flash Loan to manipulate Oracle price feeds you should definitely check out Damn Vulnerable DeFi.

Protip: If you get stuck, not making any significant progress you should check out the OpenZeppelin Forum where community members share and discuss their solutions.

DeFi Hack

DeFi Hack is a CTF / Wargame focused on popular DeFi exploits and vulnerabilities. It's based on The Etherneut wargame by the OpenZeppelin team.


EtherHack is CTF / Wargame in which your goal it is to break into various Smart Contracts written in the Solidity programming language.

There are 6 level in total you can work through. The difficulty increases every time you reach the next level.

Security Innovation Blockchain CTF

Security Innovation Blockchain CTF is a dApp which is built based on vulnerable Smart Contracts the contestant has to exploit.

The different levels are modeled based on real-life use cases, ranging from lotteries to ICOs to automated royalty agreements.

Cipher Shastra

The Cipher Shastra project is an effort to help you sharpen your security skills by solving CTF-like challenges from the fields of Blockchain Security, Smart Contract Exploitation and Cryptography.

Protip: Some of the challenges have writeups listed at the bottom of the page you can use if you ever get stuck.

Paradigm CTF

The Paradigm CTF is an Ethereum-focused security competition organized by the crypto asset investment firm Paradigm. When participating one needs to solve CTF-like challenges focused on EVM- and Smart Contract security.

Protip: Paradigm usually shares solutions in the form of a GitHub repository once the competition is over.

OpenZeppelin Blog

Staying on top of the fast moving Smart Contract security landscape is as important as learning the basics through books, blog posts and tutorials.

The OpenZeppelin Blog is a great way to learn about recent developments in the security space. You'll definitely don't want to miss their blog posts on security audits as they give you an opportunity to learn about the auditing process as well as security vulnerabilities and potential exploits.

PeckShield Blog

The team at PeckShield does a great job at dissecting recent hacks and consolidating all their findings in easy to digest blog posts.

When reading such posts you'll learn about the big ideas behind the hacks, how they can be translated into code exploits (and where to inject them) and how you can be a forensic yourself by tracking them down in your favorite Block Explorer.

SWC Registry

The SWC Registry (Smart Contract Weakness Classification) is an effort to catalog and categorize Smart Contract Weaknesses. Browsing through it you'll learn about various Smart Contract vulnerabilities which have been used to exploit projects in the past.

If applicable the relationships to CWEs (Common Weakness Enumeration) are shown. There are also test cases you can use to check if your project is vulnerable to be exploited via the security hole in question.

(Not So) Smart Contracts

The (Not So) Smart Contracts repository is a collection of Smart Contract implementations showcasing the most prominent security vulnerabilities like "reentrancy", "forced ether reception" or "denial of service".

Every directory contains a README describing the exploit and mitigation strategies in great detail as well as an implementation of a vulnerable Smart Contract.

Solidity Best Practices for Smart Contract Security

This blog post written by the ConsenSys team is a great read if you're looking for general security advice when authoring Smart Contracts in the Solidity programming language.

Reading through it you'll learn about the most common development pitfalls as well as considerations one has to take into account when using timestamps, multiple inheritance, state- and function visibility and more.

Common Smart Contract Vulnerabilities and How To Mitigate Them

If you're looking for a concise overview of common Smart Contract vulnerabilities you should read through Yos Riady's writeup on his blog.

In it, Yos walks you through the basics of Smart Contract security as well as common vulnerabilities such as the infamous reentrancy bug, bad randomness or integer overflows. Not only do you learn about the theoretical underpinnings of such exploits, you'll also see buggy code examples as well as the fixes necessary to mitigate attacks.

246 Findings From our Smart Contract Audits

Trail of Bits published a blog post outlining the 246 (common) findings they ran into while conducting Smart Contract audits.

The post itself is more focused on the macro of Smart Contract security and should be used to complement other, more technical resources.