The blog post "How does Ethereum work, anyway?" is one of the best reads if you want to get a deep understanding of everything that's involved when interacting with the Ethereum Blockchain.
When reading it you'll learn (among other things) how Blocks are created, how logs are stored and how transactions cause state transitions to be carried out by the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
It'll definitely take some time to read through it and grok everything but once you're done you should be in a better position to build decentralized applications on top of Ethereum and the EVM.
- Preethi Kasireddy